Mind, Body, World

Cognitive science arose in the 1950s when it became apparent that a number of disciplines, including psychology, computer science, linguistics, and philosophy, were fragmenting. Perhaps owing to the field’s immediate origins in cybernetics, as well as to the foundational assumption that cognition is information processing, cognitive science initially seemed more unified than psychology. However, as a result of differing interpretations of the foundational assumption and dramatically divergent views of the meaning of the term information processing, three separate schools emerged: classical cognitive science, connectionist cognitive science, and embodied cognitive science.

Examples, cases, and research findings taken from the wide range of phenomena studied by cognitive scientists effectively explain and explore the relationship among the three perspectives. Intended to introduce both graduate and senior undergraduate students to the foundations of cognitive science, Mind, Body, World addresses a number of questions currently being asked by those practicing in the field: What are the core assumptions of the three different schools? What are the relationships between these different sets of core assumptions? Is there only one cognitive science, or are there many different cognitive sciences? Giving the schools equal treatment and displaying a broad and deep understanding of the field, Dawson highlights the fundamental tensions and lines of fragmentation that exist among the schools and provides a refreshing and unifying framework for students of cognitive science.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Cover 1
Contents 6
List of Figures and Tables 10
Preface 14
Who Is This Book Written For? 15
Acknowledgements 16
Chapter 1. The Cognitive Sciences: One or Many? 18
1.0 Chapter Overview 18
1.1 A Fragmented Psychology 19
1.2 A Unified Cognitive Science 20
1.3 Cognitive Science or the Cognitive Sciences? 23
1.4 Cognitive Science: Pre-paradigmatic? 30
1.5 A Plan of Action 33
Chapter 2. Multiple Levels of Investigation 36
2.0 Chapter Overview 36
2.1 Machines and Minds 37
2.2 From the Laws of Thought to Binary Logic 40
2.3 From the Formal to the Physical 46
2.4 Multiple Procedures and Architectures 49
2.5 Relays and Multiple Realizations 52
2.6 Multiple Levels of Investigation and Explanation 55
2.7 Formal Accounts of Input-Output Mappings 57
2.8 Behaviour by Design and by Artifact 58
2.9 Algorithms from Artifacts 60
2.10 Architectures against Homunculi 63
2.11 Implementing Architectures 65
2.12 Levelling the Field 68
Chapter 3. Elements of Classical Cognitive Science 72
3.0 Chapter Overview 72
3.1 Mind, Disembodied 73
3.2 Mechanizing the Infinite 76
3.3 Phrase Markers and Fractals 82
3.4 Behaviourism, Language, and Recursion 85
3.5 Underdetermination and Innateness 89
3.6 Physical Symbol Systems 92
3.7 Componentiality, Computability, and Cognition 95
3.8 The Intentional Stance 99
3.9 Structure and Process 102
3.10 A Classical Architecture for Cognition 106
3.11 Weak Equivalence and the Turing Test 110
3.12 Towards Strong Equivalence 114
3.13 The Impenetrable Architecture 123
3.14 Modularity of Mind 130
3.15 Reverse Engineering 136
3.16 What is Classical Cognitive Science? 139
Chapter 4. Elements of Connectionist Cognitive Science 142
4.0 Chapter Overview 142
4.1 Nurture versus Nature 143
4.2 Associations 150
4.3 Nonlinear Transformations 156
4.4 The Connectionist Sandwich 159
4.5 Connectionist Computations: An Overview 165
4.6 Beyond the Terminal Meta-postulate 166
4.7 What Do Output Unit Activities Represent? 169
4.8 Connectionist Algorithms: An Overview 175
4.9 Empiricism and Internal Representations 176
4.10 Chord Classification by a Multilayer Perceptron 179
4.11 Trigger Features 189
4.12 A Parallel Distributed Production System 194
4.13 Of Coarse Codes 201
4.14 Architectural Connectionism: An Overview 205
4.15 New Powers of Old Networks 206
4.16 Connectionist Reorientation 210
4.17 Perceptrons and Jazz Progressions 212
4.18 What Is Connectionist Cognitive Science? 215
Chapter 5. Elements of Embodied Cognitive Science 222
5.0 Chapter Overview 222
5.1 Abandoning Methodological Solipsism 223
5.2 Societal Computing 227
5.3 Stigmergy and Superorganisms 229
5.4 Embodiment, Situatedness, and Feedback 233
5.5 Umwelten, Affordances, and Enactive Perception 236
5.6 Horizontal Layers of Control 239
5.7 Mind in Action 241
5.8 The Extended Mind 247
5.9 The Roots of Forward Engineering 252
5.10 Reorientation without Representation 256
5.11 Robotic Moments in Social Environments 262
5.12 The Architecture of Mind Reading 267
5.13 Levels of Embodied Cognitive Science 272
5.14 What Is Embodied Cognitive Science? 277
Chapter 6. Classical Music and Cognitive Science 282
6.0 Chapter Overview 282
6.1 The Classical Nature of Classical Music 283
6.2 The Classical Approach to Musical Cognition 290
6.3 Musical Romanticism and Connectionism 297
6.4 The Connectionist Approach to Musical Cognition 303
6.5 The Embodied Nature of Modern Music 308
6.6 The Embodied Approach to Musical Cognition 318
6.7 Cognitive Science and Classical Music 324
Chapter 7. Marks of the Classical? 332
7.0 Chapter Overview 332
7.1 Symbols and Situations 333
7.2 Marks of the Classical 341
7.3 Centralized versus Decentralized Control 343
7.4 Serial versus Parallel Processing 351
7.5 Local versus Distributed Representations 356
7.6 Internal Representations 360
7.7 Explicit Rules versus Implicit Knowledge 362
7.8 The Cognitive Vocabulary 365
7.9 From Classical Marks to Hybrid Theories 372
Chapter 8. Seeing and Visualizing 376
8.0 Chapter Overview 376
8.1 The Transparency of Visual Processing 377
8.2 The Poverty of the Stimulus 379
8.3 Enrichment via Unconscious Inference 385
8.4 Natural Constraints 388
8.5 Vision, Cognition, and Visual Cognition 396
8.6 Indexing Objects in the World 400
8.7 Situation, Vision, and Action 407
8.8 Scaffolding the Mental Image 411
8.9 The Bounds of Cognition 414
Chapter 9. Towards a Cognitive Dialectic 416
9.0 Chapter Overview 416
9.1 Towards a Cognitive Dialectic 417
9.2 Psychology, Revolution, and Environment 423
9.3 Lessons from Natural Computation 429
9.4 A Cognitive Synthesis 434
References 442
Index 502
A 502
B 502
C 502
D 503
E 503
F 503
G 503
H 503
I 504
J 504
K 504
L 504
M 504
N 505
O 505
P 505
R 505
S 506
T 506
U 507
V 507
W 507
X 507
Y 507