Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

Ebook

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites is a valuable volume of investigative archaeology focuses on stone tools, the artifacts produced by these tools, and the revealing debris left behind at sites where they were produced. The majority of study sites discussed are in western North America, including Alberta's own Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, a World Heritage Site.

Suitable for both the scholar and the interested layperson, Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites provides a comprehensive study in archaeological lithic analysis. This concise, "hands-on" guide to practical exploration at stone tool sites will become required reading for those pursuing studies of any sort in prehistoric lithic artifacts. The inclusion of maps, illustrations, and photographs broadens the reader's understanding of deriving meaning and relevance in the study of stone tool technology.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites 1
Contents 4
Chapter 1. Introduction to Lithic Analysis 10
1.1 Early History of Lithic Studies 13
Chapter 2. Manufacturing Techniques and Brittle Material Fracture Mechanics 18
2.1 Introduction 18
2.2 Manufacturing Techniques 18
2.3 Fracture Mechanics 29
2.4 Analysis Implementation 33
Chapter 3. General Lithic Types 34
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Silicate Minerals 35
3.3 Rocks 39
3.4 Analysis Implementation 46
Chapter 4. Sourcing Lithic Materials 48
4.1 Introduction 48
4.2 Sourcing by Non-Chemical Methods: Some Examples 48
4.3 Chemical Sourcing 49
4.4 Analysis Implementation 52
Chapter 5. Lithic Reduction Strategies and Techniques 54
5.1 Introduction 54
5.2 Conceptual Models 55
5.3 Reduction Stage Analysis 60
5.4 Ground Stone Tool Reduction Stage Analysis 73
5.5 Heat Treatment of Lithic Material 74
5.6 Analysis Implementation 76
Chapter 6. Survey of Worldwide Lithic Technology 78
6.1 Introduction 78
6.2 Lower Paleolithic 78
6.3 Middle Paleolithic 82
6.4 Upper Paleolithic 83
6.5 Mesolithic and Neolithic 84
Chapter 7. Introduction to the Study of Lithic Production Variables 86
7.1 Introduction 86
7.2 Manufacturing Techniques: Flintknappers' Experience 87
7.3 Controlled Scientific Experiments in Lithic Production Variables 90
7.4 Flintknappers' Replication Studies 94
7.5 Analysis Implementation 98
Chapter 8. The Meaning of Form in Lithic Tools 100
8.1 Types of Form 100
8.2 Functional Tool Types 108
8.3 Analysis Implementation 114
Chapter 9. Northern Plains Stone Tool Cultural History 116
9.1 Introduction 116
9.2 Clovis 116
9.3 Goshen-Plainview 119
9.4 Folsom 120
9.5 Agate Basin 122
9.6 Hell Gap 123
9.7 Alberta 124
9.8 Cody Complex 124
9.9 Late Paleoindian Parallel-Oblique Complex 127
9.10 Mummy Cave/Early Plains Archaic 128
9.11 Oxbow 129
9.12 McKean 130
9.13 Pelican Lake 131
9.14 Besant/Sonata 132
9.15 Avonlea 133
9.16 Old Women's/Late Side Notched 134
Chapter 10. Wider Applications of Lithic Analysis 138
10.1 Introduction 138
10.2 Site Type and Settlement Patterns 138
10.3 Intra-Site Patterning: Activity Areas 142
10.4 Refitting Analysis 144
10.5 Sourcing: Defining Contact, Exchange, and Material Transportation 145
10.6 Style and Technology 158
10.7 Summary 159
Chapter 11. Lithic Usewear and Residue Analysis 160
11.1 Introduction 160
11.2 Historical Development 160
11.3 Results 162
11.4 Analysis Implementation 173
Chapter 12. Approaches to Analysis and Concluding Remarks 176
Glossary 178
A 178
B 178
C 179
D 180
E 180
F 181
G 182
H 182
I 183
K 183
L 183
M 183
O 184
P 184
Q 185
R 185
S 185
T 186
U 186
V 186
X 186
References Cited 188
Index 206
A 206
B 206
C 207
D 208
E 208
F 209
G 209
H 210
I 210
J 210
K 210
L 211
M 211
N 211
O 212
P 212
Q 213
R 213
S 213
T 214
U 215
V 215
W 215
X 215
Y 215
Z 215